Tag Archives: fairy ring

Review Your season 2017

After the summer what was I hope everyone takes a well deserved break sooner rather than later..

I have written pieces to this similar to this in the past. i do believe writing this every year helps my readers with making better decisions for the coming year..

One thing I hope everyone has done this year in some way is to document the summer. With temperatures the way they were photo evidence is key not just for yourself but show stakeholders of your facility. The NSWGCSA has done just this to help turf managers work with facilities. A copy can be found here.2017-GMA info sheet

Pleas download the article above it is well written and can be ustilised for any turf facility not just golf courses.

I also have some slides from the GCSAA when they went through drought back a few years ago which may come in handy.

GCSAA drought and himidity stress

Now I also want you to download the weather data from BOM website (click on this link to find your closest weather station)  if you don’t have accurate records somewhere.This will show everyone and remind yourself on how much pressure your turf was under. In our job we watch the weather all the time. What i noticed and many of you know this is that the day temperatures were not the issue. We can deal with 40C days. It was the nights that caused the bulk of the issues. Night temperatures did drop all that much at night. Typically in January and February we saw a day of 35C-40C and night temps drop down to 25C only and that was only after midnight. Many posts I saw on Turf Management Australia Facebook page that guys were still at 30C at midnight and soil temps around the same amount.. How can we expect the turf to survive that whether it’s cool season or even warm season grasses.

These are the questions you need to ask yourself:

  • What were my issues
  • When did they start occurring
  • Did I expect them to occur then
  • Could I of dealt with the issue earlier
  • Did I have outside issues to deal with
  • Were the issues caused by nature or by putting the turf under undue stress
  • Was there anything you could have done better
  • Were you more proactive or reactive with the summer i.e did you have a preventative program or just deal with the issues when they arose
  • Did your program stack up

Come March we had a big change in weather up until that point it was hot humid March added rainfall. Temperatures were still high though.

One thing for sure was that spray intervals were greatly reduced. Where commonly 21-28 intervals were the norm this was being reduced to 7-14 days at times as the pressure was very high.

Did you utilise a broad range of control options for the issue (e.g different products, cultural practices, fertility). Specifically for fungicides did you rotate resistance groupings enough What can you do next season to reduce the issues

Does the course need to be altered in any way to help (i.e does drainage have to be put in or fixed, is building a new green/tee possible) There is alot more of a list which I could write but this is just to give you an idea on topics to think about. Keep in mind with the disease pressure this year fungicides you used had to deal with high pressure situations and where expected residual was normally 21-28 days you may have only got 10-21 days control for systemic products or even less with contact fungicides. The fungicide had not failed but more so the pressure was too high to give you control expected. If you would like some help with reviewing your specific situation please do not hesitate to contact me either via this blog or email


Regards Nadeem Zreikat

GIS 2017 Orlando Florida summary

I’m back from the US from the Golf Industry Show (GIS) in Orlando. I attended as usual the education conference on Monday and Tuesday and then the trade show the other days. My week concluded with a visit to the University of Florida to visit Dr Phil Harmon and Dr Carrie Harmon along with their lab technician Jeremy. I visited the university as we have done some disease diagnosis and resistance testing in the past with them (where I showed resistance in Sydney to the DMI class of fungicides to dollar spot). We discussed issues in the area and compared to Australia QLD is similar with all the warm season grasses.

I was shown around the lab where they take extra protocols with international samples. Everything has to be spot on especially receiving foreign materials. The process is the same as the local samples but the extra care has to be done.One thing I was impressed with is that a simple test is not so simple when the diagnosis becomes difficult and further analysis is done to get an accurate diagnosis for the client. I was also intrigued by all thre parts of the world where samples have been sent from, they truly are an international diagnosis lab.

Myself and the University of Florida team (Phil, Carrie, myself & Jeremy). Thank you so much everyone for taking out the time and look forward to working with you in the future.

I was very active on social media and many of you may have seen the videos of each day I did. If not here they are which give a good summary of the week. I will post more on the education seminars down the track. However if you have any question please don’t hesitate to contact me.






Stats from the show:

13,600 people attended across the week

5800 people went to the education seminars

Whats new?

Well not alot to be honest, but the most exciting thing was the GPS spray units now commonly available. Hopefully we will see these at our show from Jacobsen and Toro.These units will make spaying more efficient and changes on the go will be done in an instance- which will reduce the need to change your nozzles or water pressure all of it is done automatically.

I have been getting a few messages on digital job boards. I was at a presentation during the show from Jason Haines form Canada who i speak to regularly on twitter. He is an expert in this field and runs one for his 9 hole course for 3 staff. It is very simple to setup. For more information visit his digital job board blog www.turfhacker.com

Thank you to everyone who enjoyed my social media posts while I was over there. As well it was great to catch up with friends and make new ones.


i will post on the education seminars lately but in the meantime enjoy the pictures form the show.













Kicking it in to high gear- Grand Final Weekend 2016

I apologise for the lack of posts since the AGCSA conference. I have been traveling around the country getting to a bunch of seminars where we have sponsored them and given talks at some.

To give you an idea after the AGCSA conference I attended the following:

  • VGCSA Country meeting at Rich River
  • VGA Bendigo annual seminar
  • TGAA Corowa annual seminar
  • TGCSA annual seminar
  • SAGCSA conference
  • STA NSW Cricket Wicket 101 course (where i was an assessor for the day)

So as you can see it was fairly full on and the airline and rental car companies know me on a first name basis now. If you are on Twitter or a couple of the Facebook turf pages you would have seen a few pictures I posted as well. Let me just say if you haven’t had a chance to get to any turf turf seminars this year JUST DO IT. The information is first class and networking opportunities are endless.

Enough of that and onto the season. Well a wet start for most. Can someone turn the taps off please for a week or so. Plenty of weeds have been coming up as well and germinating quicker than usual. Get on top of this sooner rather than later.

One thing with the wet weather at least you can identify drainage areas that need to be worked on. If this is something you have in the back of your mind map it on paper so you can easily come back to it when you can.Skitch is a great app here where you can draw on pictures taken from your tablet.

As I write this we are still reasonably cool around Australia besides QLD (I don’t think they had winter this year) but it is about to heat will heat up i Sydney anyway around Grand Final time (Go the Swannies, not sure on NRL as my team is out). So here a few tips to prepare your turf:

  • Use turning boards for mowers, reduce victory lap cuts
  • Maintain adequate soil moisture throughout stressful times.
  • Keep a balanced soil profile (get a soil test do not guess)
  • Improve air flow – cut down trees/branches
  • Communication with the club management and members
  • Promote a healthy growing environment
  • Nutrition (Don’t be afraid to apply N – just know how much and what source)
  • Removing dew to reduce leaf diseases
  • Roll greens instead of mowing – alternate each day
  • Raise mowing heights (even by a 0.5 mm makes a difference)
  • Utilise bio stimulant products during the growing season such as kelp (proven to increase root mass), amino acid (heat stress), humic/fulvic acid products. For any bio stimulant look at what’s inside it and see how each component helps the plant- ask questions to those selling them.
  • Hand water with wetting agent tablets especially for drier areas

Weather for the week coming puts temps higher than they have been so far as you can see:






















Lastly 2 things the Monstar permit has been renewed please download the latest permit here

Also I have and event coming up in Adelaide in conjunction with K&B Adams, SAGCSA and Turfwise Consulting featuring 2 great Australian turf professors:

Percy Wong (Plant pathologist)

Peter McMaugh (turf and mite expert)

I will post more later but see all the information here


Good luck everyone hope you can get some downtime during the weekend. Feel free to contact me with any help needed





Monstar Permit extended for 2016-2017

Just an updated that Monstar has received an extension as the old one was due to expire expired on the 30th September.

Registration to the APVMA has been submitted for the control of fairy ring and rhizoctonia (brown patch) and we are waiting approval which should be early next year.

In the meantime please download the new permit

The permit can be downloaded here


For best management practices of Fairy ring fairy-ring-bmp-mar-2014

AGCSA conference & Late winter update 2014

Sorry I’ve been quiet on the blogging front its been a hectic couple of months planning for the coming season. Even though this is the quiet time in turf here at Campbell’s we keep going with plans for the coming season. We have trials to plan and determine how and where we can help turf managers maintain healthier turf. In saying this I’ve been working with a few turf managers on some disease management programs to combat issues they had over the last summer.

When I do a program up for someone I listen to what they have had issues with and what they have been doing to determine why the issue was  as concern. I then formulate a plan utilsing cultural controls and plant protection products not only from our range but also products that have a place to best help the turf manager to achieve the desired result working within their budget. So if you would like me to help in anyway please feel free to email me zreikat@campbellchemicals.com.au


As I write this we have had some much needed rain in Sydney, however as usual its all come at once with some flooding around the place. These are a few pictures from some Sydney turf managers on twitter with the recent rain.

Photo 19-08-2014 11 53 05 Photo 19-08-2014 11 50 49

I have also been hearing and seeing some insect activity early this season in Sydney due to a warmer July/August so be on the lookout. As a side note after the shortage last season our insecticide PENNSIDE IS BACK IN STOCK. Pennside is a broad spectrum (Micorencapsulated) slow release insecticide For details please see this link to the label

We also have Biff our bifenthrin option for adult pests

With this rain around if you are looking for some weed control we have the following options


Lastly the AGCSA conference on the Gold Coast was a success. We got to see many familiar faces and met some new ones. A big shout out to keynote speaker Dr Karl Daneberger for passing by and saying hello. His workshops were packed to say the least.

Here are a few pics from the trade show and conference..


A usual if you have any questions please don’t hesitate to contact me.

I will have a few more posts in the coming weeks as well with some product profiles and our seminar review conducted with the AGCSA featuring Dr John Kaminski and Dr Scott McElroy


Nadeem Zreikat








In my last post pre AGCSA conference I will be previewing what we will be having at our stand. We will be located at stand number 2 this year which is a left turn as you walk in.- see map below.

From Skitch

We will be showcasing a number of products in our range but most important we will be having up to date information on fairy ring management which includes cultural practices and updated trial work with Monstar, wide range of uses for DewCure and I invite you to take out Blazon challenge- where we showcase the washability of Blazon non staining spray indicator.

We will be having information on various apps you can use in everyday turf management with a few new ones from Australia and Austrlaian Turf Managers.


This year we will be having an instant win competition for those who sign up to our blog via a quciker 2 minute survey. Once your form is filled out via our ipad on the stand you can pick a piece of paper out of the jar and read the answer to correspond to what prize you will win. On offer is

1L Bite Rite Cherry juice- never had cherry juice well here is your chance. This cherry juice comes from growers Orange in NSW who we work closely with us on our horticulture side to grow the best cherries available. For more einformation see www.cherryco.com.au

Photo 13-06-2014 15 20 16


Prize 2- a portable screw driver set

Photo 13-06-2014 15 22 46 Photo 13-06-2014 15 22 26

Prize 3- one of my favourite 2 pack of Reeses peanut butter cups


As well I will be running a live blog throughout the conference with help form my mates at Turf Republic

You can view the live blog using this link

I will be posting pictures, videos and information throughout the conference from the presidents dinner to some education sessions and of course the trade show. I hope to give you a behind the scenes view of the week.

As usual you can also follow us on twitter with updates @campbellturf

Hope you can make the conference and if you do please pass by our stand.

If you have not registered yet go to www.agcsa.com.au



Breakfast on the Green- April 2014

Earlier this month we were involved in a series call Breakfast on The Green presented by myself Nadeem Zreikat of Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd and Chris Stig and John Purtell of Proturf Machinery. We had 2 excellent venues Cromer Golf Club and Bonnie Doon Golf Club. Turf managers were treated to a cooked breakfast as well as barista coffee.

Proturf machinery presented on the new GP400 Jacobsen greens mower and the new Turfco topdresser.

I presented some updated trial work with Monstar and Fairy Ring Control. I also went through best management practices for fairy ring with a extract below:

  • Turf which is under low fertility and low mowing heights mainly
  • Turf suffering from heat/drought/soil moisture stress
  • Extremes in wet/dry weather conditions favour fairy ring – this season has been perfect conditions for fairy ring
  • High thatch areas
  • Can occur anytime of the year. Mainly seen from spring onwards.
  • Recovery can take time after an application. Monstar kills the fungi but the profile is still hydphobic and until this is cured the turf cannot recover fully. Hand watering areas with wetting agent tablets can also aid in recovery.
  • Monitor soil moisture levels with a moisture meter as areas infected can retain less mositure than healthy areas.
  • Full recovery can take time especially from type 2 rings as the nitrogen to deplete.

For a previous post on Monstar click here

I also demonstrated DewCure in action. This was applied on the fairway approach and across the green. Pictures of the results can be seen in the album below.  Turf managers that were there not just saw a significant difference but could feel it to as we were experiencing heavy dews throughout those weeks and looked to use DewCure for upcoming renovation and winter turf management. To read more on DewCure see a previous post here.

Lastly we had a tour of the new holes at Bonnie Doon Golf Club with course super Justin Bradbury. The new holes look really good but alos will be a good challenge to all golfers. I can’t wait to have a hit myself later on in the year.

Here are a few pictures from the days we had at Cromer Golf Club and Bonnie Doon Golf Club. Thanks to Leon and Justin for hosting us at our respective courses.


Hope you enjoyed the new site for our blog. Feel free to search our website as well. i will be updating the blog and website in the months ahead.





Dr John Kaminski seminar review December 2013





On Thursday 19th December about 50 turf managers and industry representatives attended the Dr John Kaminski turf seminar presented by Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd.


Dr Kaminski spoke on the following topics:

  • Disease managment & plant health
  • Pythium
  • Anthacnose
  • Thatch Collapse
  • Social Media (to contact Dr Kaminski find him via twitter @itweetturf)

John presented some interesting points and by all accounts the delegates took something back to their facility that they could implement the next day. One of the big things that I tweeted out was that the need to monitor your turf and keep looking at it up close especially during the peak stress times so you can prevent issues from getting bigger than they have to.


As well .an interesting point was raised on getting soil pH testing in different parts of the profile as a normal soil test gives you a reading from the hole sample a test at different soil depths can have different readings and can impact your turf quality.

For more information on the points of the day please feel free to see www.twitter.com/campbellturf


I would like to thank the NSWGCSA and STA NSW for contributing and helping with the day without assocaitions like this we cannot have the calibre of speakers like Dr Kaminski. Please visit their sites to sign up as members. For those who require AGCSA accrediation points your detials have been sent to the AGCSA.


To the staff at St Michaels Golf Club thank you for being so easy to deal with the day went off without a hitch and to Russell and the course staff who presented a beautiful backdrop.


Lastly thank you to all those who came to the day I hope you got out if it as much as I did. I know some of you travelled from interstate to be there and I appreciate you for making the effort especially those who made it just for the day. (By the feedback I got later that day and this monring everyone enjoyed the day).


For those reading this blog for the first time thank you and I hope you enjoy it. Feel free to browse past posts of mine.


I will be moving the blog shortly to our new website which has been recently been redesigned and updated with all labels and MSDS can be found at:


I will be having more content in the future on the website with videos brochures and general turf information.


Lastly I hope everyone had Merry Christmas and have a happy new year from everyone here at Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd Thanks for all the support over the year and I hope this blog has helped you with your turf management. I hope to see you all next year again whether it is at your facility or at one of the many education/trade shows we will be at.



Nadeem Zreikat


 Below are pictures from the Dr Kaminski day:



 Thanks to NSWGCSA and STA NSW for helping out on the day




 The Victorian guys with John Mark (K&B Adams) Chris (Keysborough) John and Colin (Flinders)


 Questions were a plenty for John.


Myself and John below








Facts about Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd October 2013



For some of my readers you know who we are and where we came from. With an increasing readership of this blog and many of you reading this outside of Australia I though I would give you a quick history on our company.


The company started back in 1940. We initially had products for horticulture markets, mainly in apples and pears. We then satrted to expand our range and from the 1960’s we started offering innovative products dedicated to turf management. 

These days we sell a wide range of products in horticulture and turf. We also offer a range of post harvest protection products for citrus, cherries, grapes, vegetables, potatoes and apples as well.

Our products are either made locally or are sourced from reputable suppliers we have been dealing with for quite sometime from US, Japan and Europe. In fact we have some partnerships  with suppliers that have spanned over 40 years.

Some of the well known achievements of Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd turf divisions has been


  •  Introduced mancozeb to the turf market


  • First liquid thiram (this is taken for granted now as before the late 80’s thiram in a liquid was very difficult to formulate as a stable product)
  • Developed 3 way herbicides in Methar Tri Kombi and Sportsground which are still just as reliable today as they were back 30 years ago.
  •  Introduced Pennside in 1985- microencapsulated diazinon inseciticde which was not only effective but gave longer residual and safety benefits over any other insecticide available at the time. This was the first microencapsulated insecticide introduced to Australia.
  • Devloped Tru blue the first acid dye spray indicator to be widely used in turf management


  • In 1971 we introduced Daconil (chlorothalonil) into Australia and continued to reformulate the product from a powder to a liquid in the 80’s and 90’s but always keeping the essence of broad spectrum disease control and superior sticking capabilities. Since 2003 we have changed the name to Dacogreen 720 and most recently in 2009 developed Dacogreen WeatherShield formulation which utilises the original source of the active ingredient  and superior surfactants to give even better sticking capabilities and results on a wide range of diseases


  • 2002 introduced propamocarb to turf as Proplant- the strongest pythium fungicide that has both preventative and curative propertites
  • In 2009 we introduced Blazon spray indicator technology to a wider market in Australia. Blazon is a non-staining polymer colourant that does not stain your skin, equipment or turf like acid dyes can. As we say “No more looking like a smurf”
  • Introduced Monstar (flutolanil) on permit for fairy ring control in 2011 Further work is being carried out for registration on fairy ring and Rhizoctonia.




Here at Campbells we pride ourselves in bringing the highest quality products to the turf industry. We test all products stringently before bringing the product to the turf market. Chemicals obviously have to be registered with the APVMA and many trials have to take place. We have experienced staff to do this or use outside contractors who have specific expertise in turf trials and with whom we have established long term relationships. Even when using contractors to do the trials we still conduct some of the trials ourselves to know the products inside out and test them in various climatic conditions.


Other products in our range that do not have to be registered are still evaluated with numerous trials. We use overseas data and claims as a starting point for our trial work to test the product.We DO NOT introduce an overseas product without the necessary testing under Australian conditions.


We make sure the product we are evaluating: 

  • Works 
  • We determine a rate or different rates to get the best possible result
  • The product does what it is meant to do
  • The product does not have any phytoxicity issues or non target issues
  • Test the limitations of the product
  • It lives up to the standard you expect from us. 


We do not take any short cuts. For instance here is a product we evaluated at various rates on both dormant couch and bent grass. We used what the overseas label recommended and other rates to see which rate would suit Australian conditions.As you can see the US rate did not work and we had to use the higher rate to be able to see a result.













We have a few products under devlopment in turf as well as horticulture. As you know we have been devloping Monstar (currently on permit) to gain full registration for fairy ring and Rhizoctonia. We are also evaluating a few products we have been initially testing from our horticulture side (this is great to do since we do those trials as well). I of course can’t say much more but be assured we are working to bring innovative technologies (both chemical and sustainable) and new ideas to the turf market. We have been committed to the industry for the last 55 years and will continue for a long time to come.


If there is anything I can help you with in regards to pest and diseases please do not hesitate to conact me via the links below.




Nadeem Zreikat
Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd
Phone: (02) 9725-2544 Fax: (02) 9604-7768

Follow our turf division


Fungicide Reistance Parts 1&2 Nov 2012

Fungicide Resistance

This is a topic close to me as when I develop programs up for turf managers I always ask what their problems are and when do they occur, how there budget is etc. Pretty much what GCI Magazine just published with their “Get with the plan” story in the September 2012 issue. I go away and devlop a program and usually come back with a varied program to what they are already doing. One thing I always try to do is educate turf managers on is resistance and the need to be aware of it and steps to minimise the onset of it especially with less than less newer fungicide groups being developed. In Australia we have no documented cases of resistance (in fungicides, herbicides or insecticides) in turf, not that there isn’t any it’s just that work has not been done. For those in the US and Canada reading this I’m envious of this service you guys have where you can easily get samples tested for a nominal fee from local universities. We don’t have that service in Australian turf.

With this post I wanted to outline the basics of resistance and give you a few helpful tips when choosing the product for the job. You can relate this back to herbicides and insecticides but I will be concentrating on fungicides. 


On a side note there was an interesting blog post by one of our horticulture retailers on herbicide reistant rye grass. Have a quick read on this as in turf we use the SU Group B herbicides that they talk about. Click here

What is resistance?

Resistance occurs when a fungus which was sensitive to a fungicide becomes resistant to it (Vargas). Another definition is “resistance is a genetic adjustment by a fungus that results in reduced sensitivity to a fungicide. “(Damicone)

There are 2 strains of fungus in turf. These are the:
•    Wild Type Strain &
•    Resistant Strain

The Wild Type strain is the natural fungus in the turf that has been present before any fungicide has ever been used. The fungus is sensitive to the fungicide and thus the fungus is eliminated.

The Resistant Strain is the fungus that is not eliminated by the fungicide.The build up of the resistant strain is caused by repeated use of the fungicide and the selectivity of the fungicide against the wild type strains and for the mutant resistant strain. Thus the fungicide only works on the sensitive strain and not the resistant strain, which in turn becomes an increasing proportion of the total fungus population, as long as that fungicide is continually used as a selection agent.

Keep in mind that it is the mutation of genes that causes resistance. The fungicide applied works on the fungus that is the wild type strain thus allowing an increase in the resistant strain. Once the resistant strain is dominant and the wild type strain is the minority the fungicide will no longer be able control the fungus, hence resistance. Another way of putting it is “The fungicide selectively inhibits sensitive strains (Wild Type) but allows the increase of resistance strains (Damicone).”


Chooisng the right product for the job

There are many products out there to control the same disease in most cases. Some are better than others.

What’s important here is when choosing a products is ask yourself the following:

  • Is it turf registered on the disease you want to target  
  • Is there more than one disease you need to treat
  • Is it curative or preventative spray
  • Do you need a systemic or contact fungicide or both
  • Is it worth doing a tank mix
  • Will you need a reapplication of another productin 10-14 days time
  • What else are you doing to get recovery from the turf
  • What resistance group is it- am I applying too much of this group  

One of the most common complaints of fungicides is that “the product did not work or work as well as expected”.There are many factors that are the more likely to cause this rather than resistance.Resistance can only be proven by scientific means.

Keep in mind: 

  •  Right rates are used
  • The fungicide is applied correctly with the correct equipment, water volume and  timing. Understand how the chemical you are using works.
  • The spray equipment is calibrated correctly and running efficiently. Especially make sure the nozzles are in good working order and they are the correct type.
  • The more established the disease the harder it is to eradicate it-  hence  there may not be as long residual as expected from the fungicide and follow up applications at shorter intervals will need to be made.
  • If you have resistance to a  fungicide group on one disease you can still use that fungicide group on other diseases. For example if you have resistance to Ippon (Iprodione) on dollar spot you can still use it for brown patch control and other diseases on the label.
  • If the grass is too weak not even the best fungicide will revive it-hence recovery is essential to minimise re-occurrence of the disease.

I will have part 2 a little later on

Any questions as always please email me at zreikat@campbellchemicals.com.au



Nadeem Zreikat


Part 2

In this 2nd part I will concentrate on  and differences between contact and systemic fungicides and different strategies you can use.

Contact Fungicides 

Contact fungicides are multi site fungicides and have a minimal chance of resistance due to the fungicide attacking many different vital systems of the fungus and have multiple modes of action. They form a protective barrier around the plant tissue (i.e. chemical barrier between the fungus and the plant). They do not penetrate the plant. They generally last only 7-14 days depending on the physical removal by mowing, physical wear by players, sunlight and rainfall/watering New shoots are not protected. Contact fungicides generally only work on a preventative basis. Examples are Dacogreen WeatherShield (not prone to washing off due to formulation), Flowable TMTD, Mancozeb

Systemic Fungicides

Systemic fungicides are absorbed by the plant. The fungicide works inside the plant to control the fungus and stop the plant from being infected and will also protect new growth. Hence systemic fungicides work on both a curative and preventative basis. The residual effect comes from the fact that the plant has absorbed the fungicide and, once absorbed water and sunlight is not an issue. However, degradation by the plant metabolism may still occur. 

Systemic fungicides are classified into 4 groups

Full systemic fungicides move up and down the plant. The only product available is Signature.

Basipetal systemic
• Basipetal systemic fungicides are translocated throughout the plant in a downwards direction through the phloem (sap). There are no products currently available.

Acropetally systemic

• Acropetally systemic fungicides are translocated throughout the plant in an upwards direction through the xylem (water transport). Hence it is important to wash these fungicides off the leaf surface so they can be absorbed by the roots. Examples are Tridim and Proplant.

Locally systemic or meso systemic
• Locally systemic fungicides move below the plant surface but will only move very short distances. They have similar characteristics to contact fungicides in that they protect the plant at the point of contact but, unlike contact fungicides, they move into the plant tissue. These are also commonly known as translaminar because, when applied to one surface of the leaf, they are able to move through the leaf to the other surface of the leaf. Examples are Ippon and Protak.

Be aware, even though systemic fungicides have a residual of up to 28 days they may last much less than this depending on disease pressure at the time. If disease pressure is high with wet day/nights, high night/day temperatures and high humidity, the fungicide may not control the disease for 28 days and subsequent applications may be needed even at possibly 10-14 days intervals. If spraying on a curative basis the fungicide is less likely to last the full 28 days as well. Bare in mind using the lower label rate (if available) of the product will also shorten residual and may not have curative properties.

On a side note – if you are continuously spraying and not sure why the issue is not going away look at your plant health. Is there other things at work here such as insect damage, nematodes, heat stress etc.

Strategies for Resistance

There is no wrong or right strategy here. What is important is mixing up your resistance groups. Not just your active ingredients. For example we have Tridim (triadimenol) & Protak (prochloraz) for dollar sport control. Both have different active ingredients but are the same Group 3 (DMI) Fungicides. So if you were using Tridim then followed by Protak you are not doing anything to combat resistance you are only increasing the risk.

My suggestion would be to to do the following to really mix up your groups.Here is an example for dollar spot control with our fungicides.

App 1: Tridim (Group 3)

App 2: Dacogreen (Group M5)

App 3: Ippon or 250GT (Group 2)

App 4: Protak (Group 3) 

App 5: Vorlon (Group 1)

 As you can see in the 5 applications for dollar spot I have used 4 different resistance groupings

Limit the use of high risk groupings. In turf Group 11 (e.g Azoxystrobin, Trifloxystrobin-this is active comes in a pre mix fungicide) and Group 1 (Vorlon Thiabendazole) have a higher risk of resistance. Use these products mainly for preventative measures rather a curative application. There is worldwide resistance documented to Group 11 fungicides in various crops and turf.   

On a side note – when filling out spray records always include what group you used.This will allow you to monitor and recall what groups you have been using throughout the pressure times.

What about Pre Mix fungicides:

Pre Mix fungicides are good tools to help combat a broad range of diseases and can help with resistance management as there are usually 2 (can be more) different groups in a product. For example Headway and Dedicate have the groups 11 and 3 in it and combat a wide range of diseases. However you still need to be aware even if using them you are still applying that group on the disease (so limit the amount of sprays in your program to what is recommended) and these products may have less active ingredient in the product hence you may get a shorter residual control period than the stand alone product.

With fungicides always look to apply them at the right time on a prevention basis in pressure times. If the disease has taken hold it may take multiple applications to get the disease under control and increase resistance along the way. As well being weakened other diseases which are not normally an issue start to become prevelant. I have seen many tests come back with diseases such as phoma and bipolaris from the samples. These are more secondary diseases. You have to ask yourself why are these diseases there in the first place.

Cultural Practices

This is one of the most useful tools in resistance management. If utilised cultural practices can reduce the instance of disease and thus putting less pressure on your fungicide and even reduce the number of applications in a season.

The following cultural practices will help in aiding disease management and improve the turf surface:

Removing dew (use DewCure here or dew brooms) to reduce leaf diseases

  • Rolling greens (this aids especially with dollar spot and anthracnose management)
  • Frequent dusting
  • Spoon feeding with a balanced NPK
  • Raise mowing heights in stressful times
  • Increase air flow and sunlight to diseased prone areas
  • Reduce thatch
  • Improve drainage
  • Keep a balanced soil profile (get a soil test do not guess)
  • Keep mower blades sharp to reduce injury 

All in all this is just a short summary on resistance management. There is plenty of information out there which can be utilised.

If you are interested in reading more on the subject there are two great book that I use on a regular basis:

  • A Practical guide to Turfgrass Fungicides by Richard Latin (one a side note I will be attending Dr Latin’s class at the GCSAA conference and will bring you up to date information here)
  • Management of Turfgrass Diseases by Joe Vargas

Take care and if you want to contact me please don’t hesitate to email me  



Nadeem Zreikat


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