Tag Archives: DewCure

Why Tank Mix Fungicides?

I was in a meeting a while back with a few superintendents and one of the questions was on dollar  spot and tank mixing. Was it worth it to tank mix fungicides for control? This is a situation that many other superintendents and turf managers  face with dollar spot (and other diseases) in Sydney especially under high pressure conditions where 28 days control is unheard of and 21 is a struggle at the best of times.




I know a lot of turf managers in US would be reading this and go through similar issues as well. Weather conditions play a big roll as we know.
Dollar spot in Sydney is a major issue and is pretty much a 12 month disease in many courses with the shoulder seasons more prevalent under a normal summer due to the prolonged leaf wetness and high humidity.. However normal summers are now changing.
Many of you know I am a big advocate of changing your fungicide groups for the past 15 years and I believe there is too much reliance on the DMI chemistry (FRAC code 3). To give you an idea there are 8 separate products with a Group 3 component in them. Just a little confusing. This doesn’t even take into account the generic versions available. So please when choosing a fungicide ask the questions of not just the active but the FRAC group as well.


To help with fungicide choices I have made up a chart for fungicides and their mode of action whether systemic or contact and what FRAC group they are. This can be downloaded clicking here. If you want a laminated copy pleas email me on the address below.
But back to the question of hand of tank mixing. There are 2 options here and I am making these assumptions as is in the theory but practically not relevant in many situations.
  1. Systemic fungicides last 28 days
  2. Contact fungicides last 14 days
  3. We are only dealing with dollar spot here not other diseases so our products mentioned are only dealing with dollar spot control. Other diseases controlled by those products will not be discussed specifically.
The 2 options are
  1. Tank mix contact and systemic
  2. Apply contact fungicide followed by systemic fungicide 14 days later
Option 1:
This option is a very strong option and is used regularly not just in turf but apple production as well.
The contact fungicide will work on any resistance strain of dollar spot and will start working straight away (temperature is not an issue) where as the systemic fungicide will take some time as it has to penetrate into the plant which can take time depending on the class of chemistry and the weather and turf conditions at the time of application.


Turf is under stress – the systemic will take time to be absorbed by the plant and if weather is  dry and warm the turf is struggling to take up the ai as well.This is why we always advocate to spray in the morning when the turf (cool season) is actively growing. So with this situation the contact fungicide is not effected but weather or turf stress and will start to work work by protecting turf as well as preventing new germination of the disease.
Please note pre mix products are valid here too. Just realise some pre mix products you may not get the residual control you are after. If that pre mix has a lower ai (active ingredient) amount in the dollar spot control product than the stand alone product you can buy.
Option 2:
This option can give up to 48 days control (6 weeks). The contact fungicide will give you up to 14 days and the systemic will give you up to 28 days. Realise that if applying a systemic with resistance issues effectiveness will either be reduced or have no effect at all so you are relying on the contact to knock over the resistance strain. Note same weather issues can impact here as well.
What would I do?
Well I would do both. Option 1 during high pressure times and when you need to target multiple diseases. As well I would use this option when you have a full blown attack of dollar spot.
Option 2 use at lower pressure times and in a more prevention situation may not eliminate the resistant strain of dollar spot if you have a full blown attack.However I would always mix my groups around and limit FRAC group 3.


There are also many cultural practices which have been proven to reduce dollar spot.I urge everyone do do these as well including:


  • Rolling
  • Remove dew
  • Reduce leaf wetness
  • Dusting
  • Maintain balanced NPK
  • Increase light and air movement- if you cant get rid of the trees can you at least trim some branches back?


Thanks for the idea guys I hope this helps in making the best decision for your situation. As always please don’t hesitate to contact me further via phone or email zreikat@campbellchemcials.com.au


Our new Emerald Fungicide will be available soon and fully registered for dollar spot and other diseases.

 Cheers Nadeem


AGCSA conference & Late winter update 2014

Sorry I’ve been quiet on the blogging front its been a hectic couple of months planning for the coming season. Even though this is the quiet time in turf here at Campbell’s we keep going with plans for the coming season. We have trials to plan and determine how and where we can help turf managers maintain healthier turf. In saying this I’ve been working with a few turf managers on some disease management programs to combat issues they had over the last summer.

When I do a program up for someone I listen to what they have had issues with and what they have been doing to determine why the issue was  as concern. I then formulate a plan utilsing cultural controls and plant protection products not only from our range but also products that have a place to best help the turf manager to achieve the desired result working within their budget. So if you would like me to help in anyway please feel free to email me zreikat@campbellchemicals.com.au


As I write this we have had some much needed rain in Sydney, however as usual its all come at once with some flooding around the place. These are a few pictures from some Sydney turf managers on twitter with the recent rain.

Photo 19-08-2014 11 53 05 Photo 19-08-2014 11 50 49

I have also been hearing and seeing some insect activity early this season in Sydney due to a warmer July/August so be on the lookout. As a side note after the shortage last season our insecticide PENNSIDE IS BACK IN STOCK. Pennside is a broad spectrum (Micorencapsulated) slow release insecticide For details please see this link to the label

We also have Biff our bifenthrin option for adult pests

With this rain around if you are looking for some weed control we have the following options


Lastly the AGCSA conference on the Gold Coast was a success. We got to see many familiar faces and met some new ones. A big shout out to keynote speaker Dr Karl Daneberger for passing by and saying hello. His workshops were packed to say the least.

Here are a few pics from the trade show and conference..


A usual if you have any questions please don’t hesitate to contact me.

I will have a few more posts in the coming weeks as well with some product profiles and our seminar review conducted with the AGCSA featuring Dr John Kaminski and Dr Scott McElroy


Nadeem Zreikat







Breakfast on the Green- April 2014

Earlier this month we were involved in a series call Breakfast on The Green presented by myself Nadeem Zreikat of Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd and Chris Stig and John Purtell of Proturf Machinery. We had 2 excellent venues Cromer Golf Club and Bonnie Doon Golf Club. Turf managers were treated to a cooked breakfast as well as barista coffee.

Proturf machinery presented on the new GP400 Jacobsen greens mower and the new Turfco topdresser.

I presented some updated trial work with Monstar and Fairy Ring Control. I also went through best management practices for fairy ring with a extract below:

  • Turf which is under low fertility and low mowing heights mainly
  • Turf suffering from heat/drought/soil moisture stress
  • Extremes in wet/dry weather conditions favour fairy ring – this season has been perfect conditions for fairy ring
  • High thatch areas
  • Can occur anytime of the year. Mainly seen from spring onwards.
  • Recovery can take time after an application. Monstar kills the fungi but the profile is still hydphobic and until this is cured the turf cannot recover fully. Hand watering areas with wetting agent tablets can also aid in recovery.
  • Monitor soil moisture levels with a moisture meter as areas infected can retain less mositure than healthy areas.
  • Full recovery can take time especially from type 2 rings as the nitrogen to deplete.

For a previous post on Monstar click here

I also demonstrated DewCure in action. This was applied on the fairway approach and across the green. Pictures of the results can be seen in the album below.  Turf managers that were there not just saw a significant difference but could feel it to as we were experiencing heavy dews throughout those weeks and looked to use DewCure for upcoming renovation and winter turf management. To read more on DewCure see a previous post here.

Lastly we had a tour of the new holes at Bonnie Doon Golf Club with course super Justin Bradbury. The new holes look really good but alos will be a good challenge to all golfers. I can’t wait to have a hit myself later on in the year.

Here are a few pictures from the days we had at Cromer Golf Club and Bonnie Doon Golf Club. Thanks to Leon and Justin for hosting us at our respective courses.


Hope you enjoyed the new site for our blog. Feel free to search our website as well. i will be updating the blog and website in the months ahead.





2012 Full Steam ahead at Campbell’s

Continuing on from my last post, 2012 will be full steam ahead at Colin Campbell (Chemicals) Pty Ltd with 2 new products coming online.


The first was released late last year Monstar (for type 1,2 and 3 fairy ring control- permit and rhizoctonia*). This was posted before Christmas.


The other will be DewCure a totally new product and concept for dew supression. A product like this has never been utilised fully in Australia and we are very excited to be able to bring it to the turf industry. It has only recently been used over the past few years in the US with great success as well. I will post more on this later on.


Here’s a picture of DewCure in action during last winter in Sydney. As you can see that the middle of the green was left untreated and either side was treated with DewCure. This was taken about 10am in the middle of winter where the dew was still present (seen in the untreated area).





Also on the agenda this year is the AGCSA turf conference in Melbourne running 4th-8th June We here at Coiln Campbell (chemicals) Pty Ltd) will be well represented with our stand along with our key partners in the show. We will be doing full launches of Monstar and DewCure during that week. Monstar is available now and DewCure will be available early Autumn. I will post more later on.


The program has been released and you may have noticed my name on the program. Many of you will know my passion for social media and how I have been utilising this blog and twitter and Google + to name a few so it was only logical to share my passion with our industry. I will be presenting in conjunction with Robin Doodson (Sanctuary Cove Golf Club) a workshop title:



“Using Social Media and Smartphone Apps in everyday Turf Management”

Presented By:

Nadeem Zreikat Colin Campbell Chemicals @campbellturf

Robin Doodson Sanctuary Cove Golf Club @GreensSCGC

Time 8.30-10am Thursday 7th June.


Our aim is to expalin how social media can beneift turf managers in everyday situations.


If you are on twitter follow hashtag #AGCSA12 which myself and Robin have setup for the conference. We will post all relevant informaiton there.


Thank you again for reading my blog, feel free to leave a comment or get in tocuh with me on twitter or email. zreikat@campbellchemicals.com.au


*Trials are currently being undertaken on fairy ring and rhizoctonia for Monstar

Fungicide Reistance Parts 1&2 Nov 2012

Fungicide Resistance

This is a topic close to me as when I develop programs up for turf managers I always ask what their problems are and when do they occur, how there budget is etc. Pretty much what GCI Magazine just published with their “Get with the plan” story in the September 2012 issue. I go away and devlop a program and usually come back with a varied program to what they are already doing. One thing I always try to do is educate turf managers on is resistance and the need to be aware of it and steps to minimise the onset of it especially with less than less newer fungicide groups being developed. In Australia we have no documented cases of resistance (in fungicides, herbicides or insecticides) in turf, not that there isn’t any it’s just that work has not been done. For those in the US and Canada reading this I’m envious of this service you guys have where you can easily get samples tested for a nominal fee from local universities. We don’t have that service in Australian turf.

With this post I wanted to outline the basics of resistance and give you a few helpful tips when choosing the product for the job. You can relate this back to herbicides and insecticides but I will be concentrating on fungicides. 


On a side note there was an interesting blog post by one of our horticulture retailers on herbicide reistant rye grass. Have a quick read on this as in turf we use the SU Group B herbicides that they talk about. Click here

What is resistance?

Resistance occurs when a fungus which was sensitive to a fungicide becomes resistant to it (Vargas). Another definition is “resistance is a genetic adjustment by a fungus that results in reduced sensitivity to a fungicide. “(Damicone)

There are 2 strains of fungus in turf. These are the:
•    Wild Type Strain &
•    Resistant Strain

The Wild Type strain is the natural fungus in the turf that has been present before any fungicide has ever been used. The fungus is sensitive to the fungicide and thus the fungus is eliminated.

The Resistant Strain is the fungus that is not eliminated by the fungicide.The build up of the resistant strain is caused by repeated use of the fungicide and the selectivity of the fungicide against the wild type strains and for the mutant resistant strain. Thus the fungicide only works on the sensitive strain and not the resistant strain, which in turn becomes an increasing proportion of the total fungus population, as long as that fungicide is continually used as a selection agent.

Keep in mind that it is the mutation of genes that causes resistance. The fungicide applied works on the fungus that is the wild type strain thus allowing an increase in the resistant strain. Once the resistant strain is dominant and the wild type strain is the minority the fungicide will no longer be able control the fungus, hence resistance. Another way of putting it is “The fungicide selectively inhibits sensitive strains (Wild Type) but allows the increase of resistance strains (Damicone).”


Chooisng the right product for the job

There are many products out there to control the same disease in most cases. Some are better than others.

What’s important here is when choosing a products is ask yourself the following:

  • Is it turf registered on the disease you want to target  
  • Is there more than one disease you need to treat
  • Is it curative or preventative spray
  • Do you need a systemic or contact fungicide or both
  • Is it worth doing a tank mix
  • Will you need a reapplication of another productin 10-14 days time
  • What else are you doing to get recovery from the turf
  • What resistance group is it- am I applying too much of this group  

One of the most common complaints of fungicides is that “the product did not work or work as well as expected”.There are many factors that are the more likely to cause this rather than resistance.Resistance can only be proven by scientific means.

Keep in mind: 

  •  Right rates are used
  • The fungicide is applied correctly with the correct equipment, water volume and  timing. Understand how the chemical you are using works.
  • The spray equipment is calibrated correctly and running efficiently. Especially make sure the nozzles are in good working order and they are the correct type.
  • The more established the disease the harder it is to eradicate it-  hence  there may not be as long residual as expected from the fungicide and follow up applications at shorter intervals will need to be made.
  • If you have resistance to a  fungicide group on one disease you can still use that fungicide group on other diseases. For example if you have resistance to Ippon (Iprodione) on dollar spot you can still use it for brown patch control and other diseases on the label.
  • If the grass is too weak not even the best fungicide will revive it-hence recovery is essential to minimise re-occurrence of the disease.

I will have part 2 a little later on

Any questions as always please email me at zreikat@campbellchemicals.com.au



Nadeem Zreikat


Part 2

In this 2nd part I will concentrate on  and differences between contact and systemic fungicides and different strategies you can use.

Contact Fungicides 

Contact fungicides are multi site fungicides and have a minimal chance of resistance due to the fungicide attacking many different vital systems of the fungus and have multiple modes of action. They form a protective barrier around the plant tissue (i.e. chemical barrier between the fungus and the plant). They do not penetrate the plant. They generally last only 7-14 days depending on the physical removal by mowing, physical wear by players, sunlight and rainfall/watering New shoots are not protected. Contact fungicides generally only work on a preventative basis. Examples are Dacogreen WeatherShield (not prone to washing off due to formulation), Flowable TMTD, Mancozeb

Systemic Fungicides

Systemic fungicides are absorbed by the plant. The fungicide works inside the plant to control the fungus and stop the plant from being infected and will also protect new growth. Hence systemic fungicides work on both a curative and preventative basis. The residual effect comes from the fact that the plant has absorbed the fungicide and, once absorbed water and sunlight is not an issue. However, degradation by the plant metabolism may still occur. 

Systemic fungicides are classified into 4 groups

Full systemic fungicides move up and down the plant. The only product available is Signature.

Basipetal systemic
• Basipetal systemic fungicides are translocated throughout the plant in a downwards direction through the phloem (sap). There are no products currently available.

Acropetally systemic

• Acropetally systemic fungicides are translocated throughout the plant in an upwards direction through the xylem (water transport). Hence it is important to wash these fungicides off the leaf surface so they can be absorbed by the roots. Examples are Tridim and Proplant.

Locally systemic or meso systemic
• Locally systemic fungicides move below the plant surface but will only move very short distances. They have similar characteristics to contact fungicides in that they protect the plant at the point of contact but, unlike contact fungicides, they move into the plant tissue. These are also commonly known as translaminar because, when applied to one surface of the leaf, they are able to move through the leaf to the other surface of the leaf. Examples are Ippon and Protak.

Be aware, even though systemic fungicides have a residual of up to 28 days they may last much less than this depending on disease pressure at the time. If disease pressure is high with wet day/nights, high night/day temperatures and high humidity, the fungicide may not control the disease for 28 days and subsequent applications may be needed even at possibly 10-14 days intervals. If spraying on a curative basis the fungicide is less likely to last the full 28 days as well. Bare in mind using the lower label rate (if available) of the product will also shorten residual and may not have curative properties.

On a side note – if you are continuously spraying and not sure why the issue is not going away look at your plant health. Is there other things at work here such as insect damage, nematodes, heat stress etc.

Strategies for Resistance

There is no wrong or right strategy here. What is important is mixing up your resistance groups. Not just your active ingredients. For example we have Tridim (triadimenol) & Protak (prochloraz) for dollar sport control. Both have different active ingredients but are the same Group 3 (DMI) Fungicides. So if you were using Tridim then followed by Protak you are not doing anything to combat resistance you are only increasing the risk.

My suggestion would be to to do the following to really mix up your groups.Here is an example for dollar spot control with our fungicides.

App 1: Tridim (Group 3)

App 2: Dacogreen (Group M5)

App 3: Ippon or 250GT (Group 2)

App 4: Protak (Group 3) 

App 5: Vorlon (Group 1)

 As you can see in the 5 applications for dollar spot I have used 4 different resistance groupings

Limit the use of high risk groupings. In turf Group 11 (e.g Azoxystrobin, Trifloxystrobin-this is active comes in a pre mix fungicide) and Group 1 (Vorlon Thiabendazole) have a higher risk of resistance. Use these products mainly for preventative measures rather a curative application. There is worldwide resistance documented to Group 11 fungicides in various crops and turf.   

On a side note – when filling out spray records always include what group you used.This will allow you to monitor and recall what groups you have been using throughout the pressure times.

What about Pre Mix fungicides:

Pre Mix fungicides are good tools to help combat a broad range of diseases and can help with resistance management as there are usually 2 (can be more) different groups in a product. For example Headway and Dedicate have the groups 11 and 3 in it and combat a wide range of diseases. However you still need to be aware even if using them you are still applying that group on the disease (so limit the amount of sprays in your program to what is recommended) and these products may have less active ingredient in the product hence you may get a shorter residual control period than the stand alone product.

With fungicides always look to apply them at the right time on a prevention basis in pressure times. If the disease has taken hold it may take multiple applications to get the disease under control and increase resistance along the way. As well being weakened other diseases which are not normally an issue start to become prevelant. I have seen many tests come back with diseases such as phoma and bipolaris from the samples. These are more secondary diseases. You have to ask yourself why are these diseases there in the first place.

Cultural Practices

This is one of the most useful tools in resistance management. If utilised cultural practices can reduce the instance of disease and thus putting less pressure on your fungicide and even reduce the number of applications in a season.

The following cultural practices will help in aiding disease management and improve the turf surface:

Removing dew (use DewCure here or dew brooms) to reduce leaf diseases

  • Rolling greens (this aids especially with dollar spot and anthracnose management)
  • Frequent dusting
  • Spoon feeding with a balanced NPK
  • Raise mowing heights in stressful times
  • Increase air flow and sunlight to diseased prone areas
  • Reduce thatch
  • Improve drainage
  • Keep a balanced soil profile (get a soil test do not guess)
  • Keep mower blades sharp to reduce injury 

All in all this is just a short summary on resistance management. There is plenty of information out there which can be utilised.

If you are interested in reading more on the subject there are two great book that I use on a regular basis:

  • A Practical guide to Turfgrass Fungicides by Richard Latin (one a side note I will be attending Dr Latin’s class at the GCSAA conference and will bring you up to date information here)
  • Management of Turfgrass Diseases by Joe Vargas

Take care and if you want to contact me please don’t hesitate to email me  



Nadeem Zreikat


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